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或许你应该学学 postman

这是崔斯特的第二十八篇原创文章

简单模拟请求的工具 (๑• . •๑)

使用

最简单的方法就是直接在浏览器中复制 Copy as cURL ,然后把数据导入 postman,然后 send ,收工。

我们这里拿 知乎首页 举例

在对应的请求下复制 cURL

打开 postman , 点击左上角的 Import , 选择Paste Raw Text ,最后 Import,点击 send发送请求

发送请求之后就可以查看了,如下图,标箭头的地方可以打开看更多。比如可以预览web界面,查看 Headers 信息,查看状态,复制代码。

同时可以打开 Headers ,用来调试,哪些是需要的,哪些不需要

最方便的一点是,可以直接生成对应的编程语言,并复制,例如Python的requests方法:

好了,到这里 postman 的简单功能就说完了,他的全部功能当然不止这一点,更多的就去看 文档啦

问题

在我的使用过程中,发现了 postman 的一些问题,如:导入错误,参数错误,请求失误。

导入错误

例如知乎这个例子,如果我们复制的是 Copy as cURL (cmd) ,可能你会遇到下面的错误

这个时候选用 Copy as cURL (bush) 就好了,具体原因是啥,我也不清楚。我在这里找到了别人的描述

There is no difference between the two cURL command because there is a difference between ” and ‘.

Refer : Use cURL to get the same results as a web browser

参数错误

举个例子,今天在帮朋友查看 这个网站 的翻页,复制用postman打开, copy cURL 内容是

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curl "https://www.crunchbase.com/v4/data/entities/organizations/56e40f50-97c7-2a77-255d-1d97d5f30646/overrides?field_ids=^%^5B^%^22identifier^%^22,^%^22layout_id^%^22,^%^22facet_ids^%^22,^%^22title^%^22,^%^22short_description^%^22,^%^22is_locked^%^22^%^5D^&card_ids=^%^5B^%^22investments_list^%^22^%^5D" -H "cookie: _ga=GA1.2.35962729.1517412509; _gid=GA1.2.2072770006.1517412509; _vdl=1; _hp2_ses_props.973801186=^%^7B^%^22ts^%^22^%^3A1517412512548^%^2C^%^22d^%^22^%^3A^%^22www.crunchbase.com^%^22^%^2C^%^22h^%^22^%^3A^%^22^%^2Fsearch^%^2Fprincipal.investors^%^22^%^7D; __qca=P0-1969245879-1517412512628; D_IID=1B7344D2-1C8F-3327-8607-D786306444AE; D_UID=208F925B-3D1C-3491-A532-C82375EE187D; D_ZID=497DB63C-5101-3F49-BE35-1752A80F8DDA; D_ZUID=D89FCBAA-BF79-340C-BF55-B860768D0993; D_HID=57B19D5F-5069-3A82-94CB-D42821D1CD10; D_SID=123.120.141.63:bXaeU41PWi5vyYIflFmiShQiK1qwq/nC4G9IljWo+6A; AMCVS_6B25357E519160E40A490D44^%^40AdobeOrg=1; wcsid=KZbgLoopx4WnyMOW3F6pZ0H92JEzMrBd; hblid=cfw6lOKzm4FpCUou3F6pZ0H92JE6rBWB; s_cc=true; AMCV_6B25357E519160E40A490D44^%^40AdobeOrg=1099438348^%^7CMCMID^%^7C05859477990281579603868663655860142263^%^7CMCAAMLH-1518017313^%^7C11^%^7CMCAAMB-1518017313^%^7CRKhpRz8krg2tLO6pguXWp5olkAcUniQYPHaMWWgdJ3xzPWQmdj0y^%^7CMCOPTOUT-1517419713s^%^7CNONE^%^7CMCAID^%^7CNONE^%^7CMCSYNCSOP^%^7C411-17570^%^7CvVersion^%^7C2.1.0; _okdetect=^%^7B^%^22token^%^22^%^3A^%^2215174125149410^%^22^%^2C^%^22proto^%^22^%^3A^%^22https^%^3A^%^22^%^2C^%^22host^%^22^%^3A^%^22www.crunchbase.com^%^22^%^7D; olfsk=olfsk8562990481377502; _okbk=cd4^%^3Dtrue^%^2Cvi5^%^3D0^%^2Cvi4^%^3D1517412515909^%^2Cvi3^%^3Dactive^%^2Cvi2^%^3Dfalse^%^2Cvi1^%^3Dfalse^%^2Ccd8^%^3Dchat^%^2Ccd6^%^3D0^%^2Ccd5^%^3Daway^%^2Ccd3^%^3Dfalse^%^2Ccd2^%^3D0^%^2Ccd1^%^3D0^%^2C; _ok=1554-355-10-6773; _hp2_props.973801186=^%^7B^%^22Logged^%^20In^%^22^%^3Afalse^%^2C^%^22Pro^%^22^%^3Afalse^%^7D; _hp2_id.973801186=^%^7B^%^22userId^%^22^%^3A^%^228805156096536097^%^22^%^2C^%^22pageviewId^%^22^%^3A^%^221700148784936413^%^22^%^2C^%^22sessionId^%^22^%^3A^%^225929107734453151^%^22^%^2C^%^22identity^%^22^%^3Anull^%^2C^%^22trackerVersion^%^22^%^3A^%^223.0^%^22^%^7D; _oklv=1517412548852^%^2CKZbgLoopx4WnyMOW3F6pZ0H92JEzMrBd; s_pers=^%^20s_nrgvo^%^3DNew^%^7C1580484574965^%^3B" -H "origin: https://www.crunchbase.com" -H "accept-encoding: gzip, deflate, br" -H "x-distil-ajax: dfdvfavtsysazfberrtudvwabwe" -H "user-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/63.0.3239.84 Safari/537.36" -H "content-type: application/json" -H "accept-language: zh-CN,zh;q=0.9,en;q=0.8" -H "accept: application/json, text/plain, */*" -H "referer: https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/500-startups/investments/investments_list" -H "authority: www.crunchbase.com" -H "x-requested-with: XMLHttpRequest" --data-binary ^"^{^
^\^"card_lookups^\^": ^[^
^{^
^\^"card_id^\^": ^\^"investments_list^\^",^
^\^"limit^\^": 100,^
^\^"after_id^\^": ^\^"07a9c686-4590-fa0f-3ac4-fc7b898c0b7a^\^"^
^}^
^]^
^}^" --compressed

导入之后,send,返回 400 错误。

postman 转义的code是:

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import requests
url = "https://www.crunchbase.com/v4/data/entities/organizations/56e40f50-97c7-2a77-255d-1d97d5f30646/overrides"
querystring = {"field_ids":"^%^5B^%^22identifier^%^22,^%^22layout_id^%^22,^%^22facet_ids^%^22,^%^22title^%^22,^%^22short_description^%^22,^%^22is_locked^%^22^%^5D^","card_ids":"^%^5B^%^22investments_list^%^22^%^5D"}
payload = "^^{^\n\n ^\\^card_lookups^^: ^[^\n\n ^{^\n\n ^\\^card_id^^: ^\\^investments_list^^,^\n\n ^\\^limit^^: 100,^\n\n ^\\^after_id^^: ^\\^07a9c686-4590-fa0f-3ac4-fc7b898c0b7a^^^\n\n ^}^\n\n ^]^\n\n^}^"
headers = {
'cookie': "_ga=GA1.2.35962729.1517412509; _gid=GA1.2.2072770006.1517412509; _vdl=1; _hp2_ses_props.973801186=^%^7B^%^22ts^%^22^%^3A1517412512548^%^2C^%^22d^%^22^%^3A^%^22www.crunchbase.com^%^22^%^2C^%^22h^%^22^%^3A^%^22^%^2Fsearch^%^2Fprincipal.investors^%^22^%^7D; __qca=P0-1969245879-1517412512628; D_IID=1B7344D2-1C8F-3327-8607-D786306444AE; D_UID=208F925B-3D1C-3491-A532-C82375EE187D; D_ZID=497DB63C-5101-3F49-BE35-1752A80F8DDA; D_ZUID=D89FCBAA-BF79-340C-BF55-B860768D0993; D_HID=57B19D5F-5069-3A82-94CB-D42821D1CD10; D_SID=123.120.141.63:bXaeU41PWi5vyYIflFmiShQiK1qwq/nC4G9IljWo+6A; AMCVS_6B25357E519160E40A490D44^%^40AdobeOrg=1; wcsid=KZbgLoopx4WnyMOW3F6pZ0H92JEzMrBd; hblid=cfw6lOKzm4FpCUou3F6pZ0H92JE6rBWB; s_cc=true; AMCV_6B25357E519160E40A490D44^%^40AdobeOrg=1099438348^%^7CMCMID^%^7C05859477990281579603868663655860142263^%^7CMCAAMLH-1518017313^%^7C11^%^7CMCAAMB-1518017313^%^7CRKhpRz8krg2tLO6pguXWp5olkAcUniQYPHaMWWgdJ3xzPWQmdj0y^%^7CMCOPTOUT-1517419713s^%^7CNONE^%^7CMCAID^%^7CNONE^%^7CMCSYNCSOP^%^7C411-17570^%^7CvVersion^%^7C2.1.0; _okdetect=^%^7B^%^22token^%^22^%^3A^%^2215174125149410^%^22^%^2C^%^22proto^%^22^%^3A^%^22https^%^3A^%^22^%^2C^%^22host^%^22^%^3A^%^22www.crunchbase.com^%^22^%^7D; olfsk=olfsk8562990481377502; _okbk=cd4^%^3Dtrue^%^2Cvi5^%^3D0^%^2Cvi4^%^3D1517412515909^%^2Cvi3^%^3Dactive^%^2Cvi2^%^3Dfalse^%^2Cvi1^%^3Dfalse^%^2Ccd8^%^3Dchat^%^2Ccd6^%^3D0^%^2Ccd5^%^3Daway^%^2Ccd3^%^3Dfalse^%^2Ccd2^%^3D0^%^2Ccd1^%^3D0^%^2C; _ok=1554-355-10-6773; _hp2_props.973801186=^%^7B^%^22Logged^%^20In^%^22^%^3Afalse^%^2C^%^22Pro^%^22^%^3Afalse^%^7D; _hp2_id.973801186=^%^7B^%^22userId^%^22^%^3A^%^228805156096536097^%^22^%^2C^%^22pageviewId^%^22^%^3A^%^221700148784936413^%^22^%^2C^%^22sessionId^%^22^%^3A^%^225929107734453151^%^22^%^2C^%^22identity^%^22^%^3Anull^%^2C^%^22trackerVersion^%^22^%^3A^%^223.0^%^22^%^7D; _oklv=1517412548852^%^2CKZbgLoopx4WnyMOW3F6pZ0H92JEzMrBd; s_pers=^%^20s_nrgvo^%^3DNew^%^7C1580484574965^%^3B",
'origin': "https://www.crunchbase.com",
'accept-encoding': "gzip, deflate, br",
'x-distil-ajax': "dfdvfavtsysazfberrtudvwabwe",
'user-agent': "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/63.0.3239.84 Safari/537.36",
'content-type': "application/json",
'accept-language': "zh-CN,zh;q=0.9,en;q=0.8",
'accept': "application/json, text/plain, */*",
'referer': "https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/500-startups/investments/investments_list",
'authority': "www.crunchbase.com",
'x-requested-with': "XMLHttpRequest",
'cache-control': "no-cache",
'postman-token': "1df3b2b6-b682-edf7-4804-572ac5a03420"
}
response = requests.request("POST", url, data=payload, headers=headers, params=querystring)
print(response.text)

可以看到 加入了大量的 ^ 符号,这个在Python中是运算符

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^ 按位异或运算符:当两对应的二进位相异时,结果为1 (a ^ b) 输出结果 49 ,二进制解释: 0011 0001

这也是 postman 的一个问题

请求失误

这个问题,我也不是很懂,有的请求 postman 返回错误,但是复制代码到 Python 环境中运行是可以获得数据的,所以最好是多次验证。

本文标题:或许你应该学学 postman

文章作者:小歪

发布时间:2018年01月31日 - 22:01

最后更新:2018年01月31日 - 23:01

原始链接:https://zhangslob.github.io/2018/01/31/或许你应该学学-postman/

许可协议: 署名-非商业性使用-禁止演绎 4.0 国际 转载请保留原文链接及作者。

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